福州文化 > 【迎世遗 展新姿】A Trip to Fuzhou | 福州文庙

【迎世遗 展新姿】A Trip to Fuzhou | 福州文庙

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The Confucian Temple of Fuzhou

The Confucian Temple of Fuzhou, located at 10 Shengmiao Road, Gulou District of Fuzhou, served as a venue to worship and offer sacrifice to Confucius, a great educator and founder of Confucianism, in ancient times. First built in the early Tang Dynasty(618-907) , it was relocated to today's location from the northwest part of the city in 773, the eighth year of the Dali reign during the Tang Dynasty. In 921, the first year of the Longde reign of Later Liang during the Five Dynasties (907-960) , Wang Shenzhi, or Prince of Min, established the Simen Academy here. In 987, the third year of the Taiping Xingguo reign of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127), transport commissioner Yang Kerang reconstructed the Confucian Temple. During the Jingyou reign of the Northern Song Dynasty, a prefectural-level school was set up nearby as an auxiliary facility of the Confucian Temple,which had increasingly expanded since then. The existing buildings date back to the period from 1851 to 1854, the first four years of the reign of Emperor Xianfeng of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) . Facing south, the architectural complex covers a land area of 7, 552 square meters and has floor areas totaling about 4, 000 square meters. It consists of two courtyards,with buildings sym-metrically distributed along the north-south axis. From south to north, the major buildings include the Lingxing Gate, Front Square, Dacheng Gate,courtyards, Yitai, and Dacheng Hall. On both sides are corridors, the Memorial Temple of Local Saints, the Memorial Temple of Celebrated Officials, and the east and west side halls. In May 2006, the Confucian Temple of Fuzhou was cited as a major monument protected at the national level.

福州府文庙位于福州市鼓楼区圣庙路 10号,是古代祭祀教育家、儒学创始人孔子的场所。始建于唐初,唐大历八年(773) 从城西北移建今址。五代后梁龙德元年(921) , 闽王王审知在此设四门学。北宋太平兴国三年(987) ,转运使杨克让重建孔庙。北宋景祜年间,在庙旁增设府学,隶属孔庙,此后不断扩展。现存建筑建于清咸丰元年(1851) 至四年(1854) , 坐北朝南,占地面积约为7552平方米,建筑面积约4000平方米。南北依次二进院落,沿中轴线左右对称,由南往北依次有棂星门、前埕、大成门、庭院、佾台和大成殿;两侧有廊庑、乡贤祠、名宦祠和东西两庑等。2006年5月公布为全国重点文物保护单位。


Lingxing Gate

In Chinese mythology, Lingxing, also known as Wenquxing, is the constellation or god in charge of imperial examinations and literary affairs. The Lingxing Gate in the Confucian Temple demonstrates that Confucius is revered as Heaven, and implies that Confucianism has been widely used in talent cultivation. Facing the main entrance of the Confucian Temple, the Lingxing Gate consists of three stone memorial archways towering skywards,each with two pillars and three architraves. Only the middle architrave is decorated with relief carvings. The pillars are slightly higher than the upper architrave, with a girdled part on the top.

棂星门

据载棂星为天上文星,文庙设置棂星门,寓意孔子乃星宿下凡,尊孔如尊天,也表示孔子思想广育人才。棂星门位于文庙正大门,为石造三座两柱一间冲天式牌坊,造型上为两柱和三层额枋,仅中层额枋有浮雕装饰,立柱略高出上额枋,顶部加束腰。


 

 
Panchi and Panqiao

Panchi (literally, ''School Pond'') and Panqiao (literally, "School Bridge") were moved to the current location in 2000 when the Confucian Temple of Fuzhou was renovated. Panchi, a water pond in front of a school establishment in ancient times, is a necessary companion of Confucian temples. This tradition stemmed from the Zhou rites. According to ritual norms, the Imperial Academy, also called Piyong, was encircled by water in four directions. Schools at the vassal level, known as ''school palaces", could only be accompanied by a semi-round pond in south, which implies that learning is an endless process. According to the imperial examination system of the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing dynasties, newly enrolled students of county-level schools should visit school palaces to pay homage to Confucius, which was called Rupan(Enter the School Palace) or Youpan (Travel the School Palace) .

泮池泮桥
2000年重修福州府文庙始移至今址。泮池是孔庙特有的形制,源自周礼。按照礼制,天子太学四周环水,称“辟雍”。诸侯一级的学校只能南面泮水,呈半圆状,称为“学宫”, 取“学无止境”之意。明清科举制度规定,学童考进县学为新进学员,须入学宫拜谒孔子,叫做入泮或游泮。



Dacheng Gate

The Dacheng Gate, also called Rite Gate or Halberd Gate, is the main entrance to the main hall of the Confucian Temple. In 1104, the third year of the Chongning reign in the Song Dynasty (960-1279) , the gate was named after the Dacheng Hall behind it. It is the main passage leading to the Dacheng Hall. Dacheng, literally meaning"Ultimate Completion", is a musical term in ancient times. In ancient Chinese music, each, part of a song was called a"cheng"and a song had nine"cheng". The song ended after nine"cheng", which is called "Dacheng". Mencius once said: "Confucius integrated all philosophical schools.'' The Dacheng Gate is three rooms in width and two rooms in depth and features a single-eave overhanging gable roof.

大成门

大成门是文庙正殿前的主门,又称仪门或戟门。宋崇宁三年(1104) 因大成殿得名为大成门,是通往大成殿区域内的正门。“大成”一词来自于古代乐曲,古乐称一变为一成,九变为九成,至九成而乐终,称为大成,孟子曾说“孔子之谓集大成”。大成门面阔三间,进深两间,单檐悬山顶。


Yitai

Yitai, literally meaning "Dance Platform", is the venue for musical and dance performances at the spring and autumn sacrifices for Confucius at the Confucian Temple. The platform has granite balustrades in the east, west and south sides. The rectangular stone inlaid the stairway of Yitai is carved with dragon and phoenix patterns. The foundation of the platform is 32. 2 meters long, 8. 9 meters wide and 1. 4 meters tall.

佾台

佾台是文庙每年春秋丁祭时奏乐和歌舞的地方。佾台东、西和南三面环以花岗岩石柱护栏,佾台石阶丹陛石镶嵌龙凤石雕。台基长32. 2米,宽8. 9 米,高为1. 4米。






 
Dacheng Hall

As the core structure of the Confucian Temple, Dacheng Hall is the main hall used to worship Confucius. In the Tang Dynasty, it was called the Hall of Prince Wenxuan. Emperor Huizong of Song, Zhao Ji, highly venerated Confucius, saying he "represented the pinnacle of ancient saints of all times. " In 1104, the third year of the Chongning reign of the Song Dynasty, the emperor decreed to rename it the Dacheng Hall. The Dacheng Hall is the main structure in the second courtyard of the Confucian Temple. It measures seven rooms in width and four rooms in depth, and features bracket-crossing beams and a double-eave saddle roof. The caisson ceiling of the hall is square outside and round inside, symbolizing that "the Heaven is round and the Earth is square", on which are painted with the Twenty-Eight Mansions ( part of the Chinese constellations system) . The hall features a strong style of governmental building in the late Qing Dynasty.

大成殿

大成殿是文庙的核心建筑,是祭祀孔的正殿。唐代称为“文宣王殿”。因宋徽宗赵佶尊崇孔子,称其“集古圣先贤之大成”,于宋崇宁三年(1104) 下诏将其更名为大成殿。大成殿是文庙第二进院落的主体建筑,面阔七间,进深四间,穿斗式梁架,重檐歇山顶。大殿内正上方藻井外方内圆,象征“天圆地方”, 顶部彩绘二十八星宿图。大殿具有浓厚的清晚期官式建筑风格。



Memorial Temple of Celebrated Officials

The Memorial Temple, situated to the east of the Dacheng Gate, served as a venue to worship local officials who made remarkable achievements in ancient times. Back then, the government required each school to set up a temple in memory of ancient saints. The left side was used to worship talented administrators and the right side used to worship local saints. It was originally a single building, and later separated into the Memorial Temple of Celebrated Officials and the Memorial Temple of Local Saints.

名宦祠

名宦祠位于大成门东侧,是古代奉祀本地任职功绩突出官员的专祠。国家规定学校需设置先贤祠,左祀贤牧,右祀乡贤,原来是一座建筑,后逐步分立为名宦祠和乡贤祠。



 
Memorial Temple of Local Saints

The Memorial Temple of Local Saints, situated to the west of the Dacheng Gate, served as a venue to worship local renowned saints in ancient times. According to the Sanshanzhi (Records of Fuzhou) , the school at the Confucian Temple of Fuzhou constructed the Hall of Five Saints in the early days of the Northern Song Dynasty to honor local ancient saints including Chen Xiang, Zheng Mu, Liu Yi, Zhou Ximeng and Chen Lie. Later, the number of saints worshipped here gradually increased to 13 during the period across the Zhenghe, Xuanhe, Shaoxing and Qiandao reigns.

乡贤祠

乡贤祠位于大成门西侧,是古代奉祀本地著名贤人的专祠。据《三山志》记载,北宋初年,福州庙学建造奉祀邑先贤陈襄、郑穆、刘彝、周希孟、陈烈的五贤堂,后在政和、宣和、绍兴、乾道年间陆续增加至十三人。


 
东庑

大成殿前左侧的厢房,称为东庑,共计十一开间,单檐硬山顶。古代主要奉祀的是先贤先儒。


East Side Hall

The left wing of the Dacheng Hall is called the east side hall, which consists of 11 rooms. The hall features a single-eave gable roof. It was used to enshrine ancient Confucian saints in the past.



 
西庑

大成殿前右侧的厢房,称为西庑,共计十一开间,单檐硬山顶。古代主要奉祀的是先贤先儒。


West Side Hall

The right wing of the Dacheng Hall is called the west side hall, which consists of 11 rooms. The hall features a single - eave gable roof. It was used to enshrine ancient Confucian saints in the past.